If food isn’t handled, prepared or stored properly, it can become spoiled with germs. And you won’t always be able to tell from the taste or smell.
These germs can cause stomach-aches, diarrhea or vomiting, or fever. Some germs can cause more serious problems such as kidney failure, blood infection, or even paralysis. Babies and young children, older people and people with weak immune systems are most at risk of problems if food is spoiled.
How do germs get into food?
Canada’s food supply is one of the safest in the world. Still, infections related to food do happen. Here’s how:
- Food from animal sources (such as meat, chicken) can contain germs coming from these animals.
- Vegetables and fruits can pick up germs from the soil or during harvesting.
- Germs can also get onto food while it is handled, processed, stored, or transported.
Usually, foods other than raw meats, poultry, eggs and unpasteurized milk products don’t have enough germs to make you sick. Pasteurized foods have been through a process that kills germs without making the food less nutritious.
Most germs grow very slowly in the refrigerator, but faster at room temperature (when you leave meat out on the counter). At home, germs that may be on your food can grow to high levels if the food is not stored, handled and cooked properly.
The government will issue a warning when a food item is making people sick. Health Canada has food warnings at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/advisories-avis/index-eng.php. You will also learn about this from radio, television, the Internet and newspapers.
How can I keep my family safe? (see Table 1)
- Choose safe foods for your child
- Avoid unpasteurized milk and cheese products and fruit or vegetable juices, unless they were prepared from washed fresh fruit or vegetables just before serving. The label will say if the milk and juices that you buy are pasteurized.
- Rinse fresh fruits and vegetables well under running tap water, especially if they are for eating raw. Lettuce, spinach and other salad greens need careful attention. Young children should avoid eating raw or undercooked alfalfa, mung bean or other sprouts, because the seeds used for sprouting may have germs.
- Children younger than one year of age should not eat honey. It may contain a germ that causes botulism. Botulism is an illness caused by a toxin that can grow in food that hasn’t been stored properly. It can be dangerous to infants but not to older children and adults.
- Separate raw foods from cooked foods.
- Store meat, poultry, fish or seafood in leak-proof containers in the fridge, so that juices don’t spill onto other foods.
- Keep raw meats, poultry, fish and seafood away from cooked food, fresh fruits and vegetables. Wash hands, utensils, chopping boards and work surfaces carefully after handling raw meats, and before using the same items to prepare raw vegetables, salads, sandwiches or other food.
- When barbecuing, do not place cooked meats back on the plate that held raw meats.
- Wash your hands
- Wash your hands carefully with soap and water before you prepare or handle food. Also wash hands after handling raw meat, poultry or seafood.
- If you have to stop for any reason while you are preparing food—especially to use the toilet, change a diaper or touch a pet—wash your hands before going back to the food.
- Cook meats—including hot dogs and sausages, and poultry, seafood and eggs—thoroughly.
- Raw meat is often contaminated with harmful germs. Cooking meat until it is steaming hot will destroy any dangerous germs.
- It is very important to cook ground beef and other meat patties all the way through. The meat should be brown at the center, not pink or red. The juices should be clear or brown.
- Cook meat all the way through when barbecuing. Undercooked ground meats can cause “hamburger disease,” a serious infection that can cause damage to the intestines and the kidneys.
- Chicken should also be well cooked, not pink or red and not raw near the bones. Undercooked chicken and eggs can cause a serious form of diarrhea.
- Eat foods soon after they are cooked.
- Eat cooked foods as soon as possible after they are cooked.
- Keep hot foods hot, at 60°C (140°F) or above.
- Keep cold foods cold, at 4°C (40°F) or below.
- Don’t let foods cool to room temperature. If serving later, refrigerate right away.
- Store cooked foods appropriately.
- Keep foods cooked in advanced stored at more than 60°C (140°F) or rapidly cooled and stored at less than 4°C (40°F) to avoid growth of any germs that may have remained.
- Store leftovers right away in the fridge or freezer.
- Eat cream-filled pastries and potato, egg or other salads with creamy dressings immediately or store promptly in the fridge.
- Make sure your fridge is set at a temperature of 4°C (40°F) or less.
- Reheat cooked foods adequately.
- When serving heated leftovers, reheat the food all the way through.
- Keep your kitchen clean.
- Clean all dishes, utensils, cutting boards, and counters that are in contact with food before and after each use. Use hot water.
- Protect your food
- Insects, rodents and other animals including pets can carry germs. Store nonperishable foods (foods that don’t need to be refrigerated) in closed containers in a safe place.
- Use safe water
- Always use safe water when preparing food. If in doubt about water quality, boil it.
Table 1 Food infections and how to avoid them
|Food||Examples of possible infections||Recommendation|
|Unpasteurized milk, cheese and other dairy products||Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, Tuberculosis||Children should not drink unpasteurized milk or eat unpasteurized soft cheeses|
|Unpasteurized fruit or vegetable juices||E. coli, Salmonella, botulism||Children should drink only pasteurized juice products unless the fruit or vegetable is washed and the juice freshly squeezed immediately before it is served|
|Eggs||Salmonella||Children should not eat raw or under-cooked eggs, unpasteurized powdered eggs or uncooked products containing raw eggs|
|Raw or undercooked meat, poultry||Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria||Children should not eat raw or undercooked meat, poultry or meat products (including hot dogs)|
|Raw fish and shell fish||Viruses causing diarrhea, hepatitis, parasites||Children should not eat raw shellfish. Some experts caution against eating any raw fish|
|Fresh fruits and vegetables||E. coli, viruses causing diarrhea, parasites, hepatitis||All fruits and vegetables should be washed before they are eaten. Lettuce, spinach and other salad greens need careful attention.|
|Sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean)||Salmonella, E. coli hepatitis||Children should avoid eating raw or undercooked alfalfa, mung bean or other sprouts. Seeds sold for sprouting may contain germs|
|Honey||Botulism||Children younger than one year of age should not eat honey.|
|Cream-filled pastry; potato, egg or other salad with creamy dressing||Staphylococcal food poisoning||These items should be eaten immediately after preparation or stored promptly in the refrigerator|
More information from the CPS:
- Food borne Infections, a statement of the Canadian Paediatric Society
Reviewed by the following CPS Committees:
Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee
Last updated: November 2008