Health care for children and youth
- A parent’s guide to the participation of children and teens in medical education
- Health research in children: What parents need to know
- International adoption: Health issues for families
- Making treatment decisions for babies, children and teens
- Paediatricians in Canada: Frequently asked questions
- Planning care for children and youth with serious medical conditions
- You and your child's doctor
Health information on the web
- Dieting: Information for parents, teachers and coaches
- Dieting: Information for teens
- Feeding your baby in the first year
- Food allergy vs. food intolerance: What is the difference and can I prevent them?
- Food safety at home
- Healthy eating for children
- Healthy snacks for children
- Iron needs of babies and children
- Nutrition for your young athlete
- Vegetarian diets for children and teens
- Vitamin D
- When your child is a picky eater
- Avoiding infection: What to do at the doctor’s office
- Growing up: Information for boys about puberty
- Growing up: Information for girls about puberty
- Handwashing for parents and children
- Healthy bowel habits for children
- Healthy sleep for your baby and child
- Healthy teeth for children
- Physical activity for children and youth
- Physical activity for children and youth with a chronic illness
- Skin care for your baby
- Teens and sleep: Why you need it and how to get enough
- When is my child ready for sports?
- 5-in-1 vaccine
- Chickenpox vaccine
- Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTap) vaccine
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B vaccine
- HPV vaccine for girls
- HPV vaccine: What teens need to know
- Influenza vaccine
- MMR (Measles Mumps Rubella) vaccine
- MMR vaccine: Myths and facts
- Pneumococcal vaccine
- Reduce the pain of vaccination in children and teens: A guide for parents
- Rotavirus vaccine
- Vaccination and your child
Healthy teeth for children
Healthy teeth are an important part of your child’s overall health. Helping your child develop good oral health begins at birth.
When will my baby’s teeth appear?
The first primary (or “baby”) tooth usually comes at about 6 months, but it isn’t unusual for teeth to appear as early as 3 months or late as 12 months.
Every child is different, but most will have all 20 primary teeth by 3 years. At around 5 or 6 years, your child will start to lose his primary teeth to make room for his permanent teeth.
Why are primary teeth important?
Primary teeth give shape to your child’s face, help guide permanent teeth into the right position and are crucial for learning to eat and to speak. It’s important to care for them well.
Primary teeth have a thinner outer enamel (a thin, hard, white substance that covers the tooth) than permanent teeth. This puts them at risk for early childhood tooth decay, which can begin even before the first tooth appears. Decay is caused by bacteria and happens more easily if teeth keep coming into contact with sweet liquids—such as formula, milk, juice, and even breast milk (which contains sugar)—and are not cleaned regularly.
Early childhood tooth decay can affect your child’s health and cause pain, making it hard for her to sleep, eat or speak. It can also affect her ability to concentrate and learn. Children who develop dental decay at an early age are more likely to suffer from it throughout childhood.
Tips for good oral health from birth to age 4
|From birth to 12 months||
|From 1 to 2 years||
|From 3 to 4 years old||
|For all ages||
How can I help my teething baby?
When your child is getting her teeth, her gums may be swollen and tender.
- Rub the gums with a clean finger.
- Offer her something to chew on. A wet facecloth placed in the freezer for 30 minutes can be helpful, or a teething ring made of firm rubber.
- Use gel that can be rubbed on your child’s gums. Your child may swallow it.
- Give her teething biscuits, which may contain sugar.
- Ignore a fever. Getting new teeth does not make babies sick or give them a fever. If your baby is younger than 6 months call a doctor. Older children can be treated at home, as long as they get enough liquids and seem well otherwise.
What is fluoride?
Fluoride is a natural mineral that is found in soil, water and in various foods. It is necessary for tooth mineralization (a process that helps to harden and protect the teeth). Many communities in Canada add fluoride to the local water supply to help prevent tooth decay. It can also be found in many types of toothpaste, mouthwash and varnishes (polish applied to the teeth by a dentist).
Children who start using products with fluoride from an early age have fewer cavities than those who don’t.
How does fluoride work?
Fluoride helps prevent cavities and decay by coming in direct contact with the tooth enamel (the outside of the tooth) and promoting mineralization.
If you consume fluoride from sources such as drinking water, it gets absorbed in your bloodstream. Then it becomes part of the enamel on the inside of the tooth.
If too much fluoride gets into the inside of the tooth, it can cause a condition called fluorosis.
What is fluorosis?
Too much fluoride in the early years can damage teeth as they are forming, and can lead to a condition called fluorosis. Fluorosis causes white spots or blotches on teeth. But white spots on teeth can also be a sign of early cavities. Your dentist will have to look at your child’s teeth to know for sure.
In more severe cases of fluorosis, these spots can stain or become dark. The teeth can become brittle, chipped or “pitted”.
Cases of fluorosis are quite rare, and most cases are mild.
How much fluoride does my child need?
The right amount of fluoride will prevent cavities, but not cause fluorosis.
- The best way to prevent cavities is to add fluoride to drinking water.
- The right amount is about 0.7 parts per million (ppm) in drinking water, which is enough to prevent cavities but not too much so as to cause obvious fluorosis. You can check with your local municipality to find out how much fluoride is in your drinking water supply.
- Natural sources of water may also have fluoride. If your water comes from wells or springs, you can have it tested. If it contains 0.7 ppm of fluoride or less, it is safe.
- If the level of fluoride in your water supply is 0.3 ppm or less, ask your dentist or doctor whether a supplement is needed.
- If the amount of fluoride in the water is more than 0.7 ppm, there is more chance that a child will develop fluorosis. Children younger than three years of age should not drink water with fluoride levels of much more than 0.7 ppm.
What about fluoride from toothpaste?
Start brushing your children's teeth with a pea-sized amount of fluoridated toothpaste by the time they are 3 years old. If your child is under 3 years of age and you think she may be at risk for early childhood tooth decay, talk to your dentist to find out if it is a good idea to start using a small amount (the size of a grain of rice) of fluoridated toothpaste.
What about supplements?
Fluoride is available as drops or lozenges, but most children don’t need extra fluoride.
If there is a reason to give your child fluoride supplements, your dentist or doctor will recommend them. If you use drops, dilute them with water (follow instructions on package) and squirt them on the teeth. Tell your child not to swallow the drops.
Reviewed by the following CPS committees:
Community Paediatrics Committee
Nutrition and Gastroenterology Committee
Public Education Advisory Committee
Last Updated: March 2013