Illnesses and infections
- C. difficile (Clostridium difficile)
- Colds in children
- Common infections and your child
- Croup (laryngitis)
- Dehydration and diarrhea in children: Prevention and treatment
- Ear infections
- Febrile seizures
- Fever and temperature taking
- Fifth disease (Erythema Infectiosum)
- Hand, foot and mouth disease
- Head lice
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Influenza in children
- Meningococcal disease
- Pertussis (Whooping cough)
- Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis)
- Pneumococcal infections
- RSV (Respiratory syncytial virus)
- Strep throat
- Urinary tract infections
Tests and treatments
- A parent’s guide to the participation of children and teens in medical education
- Fever and temperature taking
- Health research in children: What parents need to know
- How to make sure antibiotics are the right choice
- Making treatment decisions for babies, children and teens
- Natural health products and children
- Planning care for children and youth with serious medical conditions
- Reducing the danger of infection for children with spleen problems
- Testing for HIV during pregnancy
- Using over-the-counter drugs to treat cold symptoms
- When your child needs a red blood cell transfusion
Vaccines for children and youth
- A parent’s guide to immunization information on the Internet
- MMR vaccine: Myths and facts
- Reduce the pain of vaccination in babies: A guide for parents
- Reduce the pain of vaccination in children and teens: A guide for parents
- Vaccination and your child
- Vaccine safety
- Your Child's Best Shot: A parent's guide to vaccination
Common infections and your child
It may seem like your child is always sick. That’s because young children are exposed to many new germs (viruses or bacteria) and haven’t yet built up enough defenses against them. Most young children will have 8 to 10 colds a year. The good news is that most of these infections are mild and won’t last very long. As children get older, they get sick less often.
How do infections spread?
Germs usually spread in one of the following ways:
- Direct contact with a person who has germs in the nose, mouth, eyes, stool or on the skin. Direct contact can include kissing, touching or holding hands with a person who has an illness.
- Indirect contact with an infected person, who may spread germs by touching or mouthing an object such as a toy, a doorknob, or a used tissue that is later touched by another person. The germs can cause infection when that person—who now has germs on their hands—touches their eyes, nose or mouth. Some germs can stay on countertops or toys for many hours.
- Droplets transmission is very common. Germs in the nose and throat can spread through droplets when the infected person coughs or sneezes without a tissue to cover the mouth and nose. Droplets travel though the air and can reach another person who is close by (less than a metre away). These germs don’t stay in the air and don’t travel over long distances.
- Airborne spread is much less common. This happens when germs stay in the air and are carried around on air currents. These germs can infect people who are not close to the infected person and may even be in a different room. Chickenpox and measles viruses spread this way. These germs are hard to control. The best way to protect your child is with vaccines against these infections.
An adult can also spread germs from one child to another by indirect contact without realizing it. For example, if you’re changing a diaper or helping your child use the toilet or wiping your child’s nose, you may come into contact with germs. If you don’t wash your hands well afterward, you can pass these germs to another child.
Common childhood infections
|Symptoms||How it spreads||What parents can do|
|Respiratory Infections (infections of the airway or lungs)|
|Strep throat and scarlet fever||
|Stomach flu (“gastro”)||
* When giving ibuprofen, be sure that your child drinks lots of fluid. Do not give ibuprofen if you are worried about dehydration. Do not give ibuprofen to babies under 6 months without first talking to your doctor.
How can I protect my child?
- Washing your hands and your child’s hands is the best thing that you can do to stop the spread of germs. Wash your hands after:
- Coughing or sneezing into your hands or wiping your nose.
- Using the toilet or helping your child to use the toilet
- Caring for someone with any kind of infection.
- Cleaning up vomit or diarrhea.
- Wiping your child’s nose.
- Changing a diaper.
- Handling raw meat.
- Handling pets or animals.
- When your child is old enough, teach her to wash her hands after wiping her nose or using the toilet.
- Wash your hands before preparing or serving food and before eating, and teach your child to do the same.
- If your child has a cough or cold, cover his mouth and nose with tissues when he coughs or sneezes. When he is old enough, teach him to cover his nose and mouth with a tissue when he sneezes or coughs, to put the used tissue in a wastebasket right away, and to wash his hands after. Teach him to cough or sneeze into the curve of his elbow if he does not have a tissue.
- If your child attends child care, tell the caregiver about any symptoms and ask if your child should stay home that day. When both parents work outside the home, plan ahead by making other arrangements for someone to care for your child when he is sick.
- Make sure your child has received all of the recommended immunizations.
What can I do if my child is sick?
When your child is sick, you want them to feel better. Many parents turn to over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medicines for help. There is no proof that these medications work. In fact, some of the side effects can make your child feel even worse. Do not give OTC medications to babies and children under 6 years old without first talking to your doctor. The only exceptions are drugs used to treat fever (such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen).
However, medication is not always needed to reduce a child’s temperature. Talk to your doctor if your baby (under 6 months) has a fever. To learn more about how and when treat a fever, please read our information on fever and temperature taking.
There is a also a risk of giving your child too much medication. For example, giving acetaminophen for a fever on top of a cough syrup that already contains acetaminophen may result in an overdose of acetaminophen. Never use more than one product at the same time unless advised by your doctor.
When should I call my doctor?
If your child shows any of the following signs:
- Fever and is less than 6 months old.
- Fever for more than 72 hours.
- Coughing that won’t go away (lasts more than a week) or is severe and causes choking or vomiting.
- Excessive sleepiness.
- Not interested in toys or books or anything.
- Won’t stop crying or is very irritable all the time
- Rapid or difficulty breathing.
- Diarrhea and is younger than 6 months old.
- Bloody or black stools.
- Vomiting for more than 4 hours.
- Dehydration (dry sticky mouth, no tears, no urine or fewer than 4 wet diapers in 24 hours).
Reviewed by the following CPS committees:
Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee
Public Education Advisory Committee
Last Updated: May 2013